FMP Publications

Our publications are recorded in a searchable database since 2010, updates will be added regularly.

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Temperature dependence of cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization in rotating solids: advantages of elevated temperatures
Geiger, M. A., Orwick-Rydmark, M., Marker, K., Franks, W. T., Akhmetzyanov(*), D., Stöppler, D., Zinke, M., Specker, E., Nazare, M., Diehl, A., van Rossum, B. J., Aussenac(*), F., Prisner(*), T., Akbey, Ü.; Oschkinat, H.
Phys Chem Chem Phys, 18:30696-30704

Tags: NMR-Supported Structural Biology (Oschkinat), Medicinal Chemistry (Nazare), Molecular Biophysics (Lange, A.)

Abstract: Dynamic nuclear polarization exploits electron spin polarization to boost signal-to-noise in magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR, creating new opportunities in materials science, structural biology, and metabolomics studies. Since protein NMR spectra recorded under DNP conditions can show improved spectral resolution at 180-200 K compared to 110 K, we investigate the effects of AMUPol and various deuterated TOTAPOL isotopologues on sensitivity and spectral resolution at these temperatures, using proline and reproducibly prepared SH3 domain samples. The TOTAPOL deuteration pattern is optimized for protein DNP MAS NMR, and signal-to-noise per unit time measurements demonstrate the high value of TOTAPOL isotopologues for Protein DNP MAS NMR at 180-200 K. The combined effects of enhancement, depolarization, and proton longitudinal relaxation are surprisingly sample-specific. At 200 K, DNP on SH3 domain standard samples yields a 15-fold increase in signal-to-noise over a sample without radicals. 2D and 3D NCACX/NCOCX spectra were recorded at 200 K within 1 and 13 hours, respectively. Decreasing enhancements with increasing 2H-content at the CH2 sites of the TEMPO rings in CD3-TOTAPOL highlight the importance of protons in a sphere of 4-6 A around the nitroxyl group, presumably for polarization pickup from electron spins.

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced MAS NMR Spectroscopy for Structural Analysis of HIV-1 Protein Assemblies
Gupta(*), R., Lu(*), M., Hou(*), G., Caporini(*), M. A., Rosay(*), M., Maas(*), W., Struppe(*), J., Suiter(*), C., Ahn(*), J., Byeon(*), I. J., Franks, W. T., Orwick-Rydmark, M., Bertarello(*), A., Oschkinat, H., Lesage(*), A., Pintacuda(*), G., Gronenborn(*), A. M.; Polenova(*), T.
J Phys Chem B, 120:329-339

Tags: NMR-Supported Structural Biology (Oschkinat)

Abstract: Mature infectious HIV-1 virions contain conical capsids composed of CA protein, generated by the proteolytic cleavage cascade of the Gag polyprotein, termed maturation. The mechanism of capsid core formation through the maturation process remains poorly understood. We present DNP-enhanced MAS NMR studies of tubular assemblies of CA and Gag CA-SP1 maturation intermediate and report 20-64-fold sensitivity enhancements due to DNP at 14.1 T. These sensitivity enhancements enabled direct observation of spacer peptide 1 (SP1) resonances in CA-SP1 by dipolar-based correlation experiments, unequivocally indicating that the SP1 peptide is unstructured in assembled CA-SP1 at cryogenic temperatures, corroborating our earlier results. Furthermore, the dependence of DNP enhancements and spectral resolution on magnetic field strength (9.4-18.8 T) and temperature (109-180 K) was investigated. Our results suggest that DNP-based measurements could potentially provide residue-specific dynamics information by allowing for the extraction of the temperature dependence of the anisotropic tensorial or relaxation parameters. With DNP, we were able to detect multiple well-resolved isoleucine side-chain conformers; unique intermolecular correlations across two CA molecules; and functionally relevant conformationally disordered states such as the 14-residue SP1 peptide, none of which are visible at ambient temperatures. The detection of isolated conformers and intermolecular correlations can provide crucial constraints for structure determination of these assemblies. Overall, our results establish DNP-based MAS NMR spectroscopy as an excellent tool for the characterization of HIV-1 assemblies.

Structural analysis of a signal peptide inside the ribosome tunnel by DNP MAS NMR
Lange, S., Franks, W. T., Rajagopalan(*), N., Döring(*), K., Geiger, M. A., Linden, A., van Rossum, B. J., Kramer(*), G., Bukau(*), B.; Oschkinat, H.
Sci Adv, 2:e1600379

Tags: NMR-Supported Structural Biology (Oschkinat), Molecular Biophysics (Lange, A.)

Abstract: Proteins are synthesized in cells by ribosomes and, in parallel, prepared for folding or targeting. While ribosomal protein synthesis is progressing, the nascent chain exposes amino-terminal signal sequences or transmembrane domains that mediate interactions with specific interaction partners, such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SecA-adenosine triphosphatase, or the trigger factor. These binding events can set the course for folding in the cytoplasm and translocation across or insertion into membranes. A distinction of the respective pathways depends largely on the hydrophobicity of the recognition sequence. Hydrophobic transmembrane domains stabilize SRP binding, whereas less hydrophobic signal sequences, typical for periplasmic and outer membrane proteins, stimulate SecA binding and disfavor SRP interactions. In this context, the formation of helical structures of signal peptides within the ribosome was considered to be an important factor. We applied dynamic nuclear polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the conformational states of the disulfide oxidoreductase A (DsbA) signal peptide stalled within the exit tunnel of the ribosome. Our results suggest that the nascent chain comprising the DsbA signal sequence adopts an extended structure in the ribosome with only minor populations of helical structure.

Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin
Muenzner, M., Tappenbeck(*), N., Gembardt(*), F., Rülke, R., Furkert, J., Melzig(*), M. F., Siems, W. E., Brockmann(*), G. A.; Walther(*), T.
Int J Obes (Lond), 40:1850-1855

Tags: Biochemical Neurobiology (Siems)

Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg-1 body weight per day) in the drinking water. RESULTS: In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, P<0.01) and body weight below the initial levels. Green tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. CONCLUSIONS: Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

Modulations of DNA Contacts by Linker Histones and Post-translational Modifications Determine the Mobility and Modifiability of Nucleosomal H3 Tails
Stützer(*), A., Liokatis, S., Kiesel(*), A., Schwarzer, D., Sprangers(*), R., Söding(*), J., Selenko, P.; Fischle(*), W.
Mol Cell, 61:247-259

Tags: In-Cell NMR (Selenko), Protein Chemistry (Schwarzer)

Abstract: Post-translational histone modifications and linker histone incorporation regulate chromatin structure and genome activity. How these systems interface on a molecular level is unclear. Using biochemistry and NMR spectroscopy, we deduced mechanistic insights into the modification behavior of N-terminal histone H3 tails in different nucleosomal contexts. We find that linker histones generally inhibit modifications of different H3 sites and reduce H3 tail dynamics in nucleosomes. These effects are caused by modulations of electrostatic interactions of H3 tails with linker DNA and largely depend on the C-terminal domains of linker histones. In agreement, linker histone occupancy and H3 tail modifications segregate on a genome-wide level. Charge-modulating modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation weaken transient H3 tail-linker DNA interactions, increase H3 tail dynamics, and, concomitantly, enhance general modifiability. We propose that alterations of H3 tail-linker DNA interactions by linker histones and charge-modulating modifications execute basal control mechanisms of chromatin function.

Tyrosine-phosphorylation of the scaffold protein ADAP and its role in T cell signaling
Kuropka, B., Schraven(*), B., Kliche(*), S., Krause, E.; Freund(*), C.
Expert Rev Proteomics, 13:545-554

Tags: Mass Spectrometry (Krause, E.)

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The Adhesion and Degranulation promoting Adaptor Protein (ADAP) is phosphorylated upon T cell activation and acts as a scaffold for the formation of a signaling complex that integrates molecular interactions between T cell or chemokine receptors, the actin cytoskeleton, and integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and migration. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews current knowledge of the functions of the adapter protein ADAP in T cell signaling with a focus on the role of individual phosphotyrosine (pY) motifs for SH2 domain mediated interactions. The data presented was obtained from literature searches (PubMed) as well as the authors own research on the topic. Expert commentary: ADAP can be regarded as a paradigmatic example of how tyrosine phosphorylation sites serve as dynamic interaction hubs. Molecular crowding at unstructured and redundant sites (pY595, pY651) is contrasted by more specific interactions enabled by the three-dimensional environment of a particular phosphotyrosine motif (pY571).

Dynamics of the Ligand Binding Domain Layer during AMPA Receptor Activation
Baranovic, J., Chebli, M., Salazar, H., Carbone, A. L., Faelber(*), K., Lau(*), A. Y., Daumke(*), O.; Plested, A. J.
Biophys J, 110:896-911

Tags: Molecular Neuroscience and Biophysics (Plested)

Abstract: Ionotropic glutamate receptors are postsynaptic tetrameric ligand-gated channels whose activity mediates fast excitatory transmission. Glutamate binding to clamshell-shaped ligand binding domains (LBDs) triggers opening of the integral ion channel, but how the four LBDs orchestrate receptor activation is unknown. Here, we present a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure displaying two tetrameric LBD arrangements fully bound to glutamate. Using a series of engineered metal ion trapping mutants, we showed that the more compact of the two assemblies corresponds to an arrangement populated during activation of full-length receptors. State-dependent cross-linking of the mutants identified zinc bridges between the canonical active LBD dimers that formed when the tetramer was either fully or partially bound by glutamate. These bridges also stabilized the resting state, consistent with the recently published full-length apo structure. Our results provide insight into the activation mechanism of glutamate receptors and the complex conformational space that the LBD layer can sample.

AKAP18:PKA-RIIalpha structure reveals crucial anchor points for recognition of regulatory subunits of PKA
Götz, F., Roske(*), Y., Schulz(*), M. S., Autenrieth(*), K., Bertinetti(*), D., Faelber(*), K., Zühlke(*), K., Kreuchwig, A., Kennedy(*), E. J., Krause, G., Daumke(*), O., Herberg(*), F. W., Heinemann(*), U.; Klussmann(*), E.
Biochem J, 473:1881-1894

Tags: Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Design (Krause, G.), Anchored Signaling (Klussmann)

Abstract: A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) interact with the dimerization/docking (D/D) domains of regulatory subunits of the ubiquitous protein kinase A (PKA). AKAPs tether PKA to defined cellular compartments establishing distinct pools to increase the specificity of PKA signalling. Here, we elucidated the structure of an extended PKA-binding domain of AKAP18beta bound to the D/D domain of the regulatory RIIalpha subunits of PKA. We identified three hydrophilic anchor points in AKAP18beta outside the core PKA-binding domain, which mediate contacts with the D/D domain. Such anchor points are conserved within AKAPs that bind regulatory RII subunits of PKA. We derived a different set of anchor points in AKAPs binding regulatory RI subunits of PKA. In vitro and cell-based experiments confirm the relevance of these sites for the interaction of RII subunits with AKAP18 and of RI subunits with the RI-specific smAKAP. Thus we report a novel mechanism governing interactions of AKAPs with PKA. The sequence specificity of each AKAP around the anchor points and the requirement of these points for the tight binding of PKA allow the development of selective inhibitors to unequivocally ascribe cellular functions to the AKAP18-PKA and other AKAP-PKA interactions.

On The Potential of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Diamonds in Solid-State and Dissolution (13) C NMR Spectroscopy
Bretschneider(*), C. O., Akbey, Ü., Aussenac(*), F., Olsen(*), G. L., Feintuch(*), A., Oschkinat, H.; Frydman(*), L.
Chemphyschem, 17:2691-2701

Tags: NMR-Supported Structural Biology (Oschkinat)

Abstract: Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a versatile option to improve the sensitivity of NMR and MRI. This versatility has elicited interest for overcoming potential limitations of these techniques, including the achievement of solid-state polarization enhancement at ambient conditions, and the maximization of (13) C signal lifetimes for performing in vivo MRI scans. This study explores whether diamond's (13) C behavior in nano- and micro-particles could be used to achieve these ends. The characteristics of diamond's DNP enhancement were analyzed for different magnetic fields, grain sizes, and sample environments ranging from cryogenic to ambient temperatures, in both solution and solid-state experiments. It was found that (13) C NMR signals could be boosted by orders of magnitude in either low- or room-temperature solid-state DNP experiments by utilizing naturally occurring paramagnetic P1 substitutional nitrogen defects. We attribute this behavior to the unusually long electronic/nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times characteristic of diamond, coupled with a time-independent cross-effect-like polarization transfer mechanism facilitated by a matching of the nitrogen-related hyperfine coupling and the (13) C Zeeman splitting. The efficiency of this solid-state polarization process, however, is harder to exploit in dissolution DNP-enhanced MRI contexts. The prospects for utilizing polarized diamond approaching nanoscale dimensions for both solid and solution applications are briefly discussed.

TNF induced cleavage of HSP90 by cathepsin D potentiates apoptotic cell death
Fritsch(*), J., Fickers(*), R., Klawitter(*), J., Särchen(*), V., Zingler(*), P., Adam(*), D., Janssen(*), O., Krause, E.; Schütze(*), S.
Oncotarget, 7:75774-75789

Tags: Mass Spectrometry (Krause, E.)

Abstract: During apoptosis induction by TNF, the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways converge at the lysosomal-mitochondrial interface. Earlier studies showed that the lysosomal aspartic protease Cathepsin D (CtsD) cleaves Bid to tBid, resulting in the amplification of the initial apoptotic cascade via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP).The goal of this study was to identify further targets for CtsD that might be involved in activation upon death receptor ligation. Using a proteomics screen, we identified the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to be cleaved by CtsD after stimulation of U937 or other cell lines with TNF, FasL and TRAIL. HSP90 cleavage corresponded to apoptosis sensitivity of the cell lines to the different stimuli. After mutation of the cleavage site, HSP90 partially prevented apoptosis induction in U937 and Jurkat cells. Overexpression of the cleavage fragments in U937 and Jurkat cells showed no effect on apoptosis, excluding a direct pro-apoptotic function of these fragments. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 with 17AAG boosted ligand mediated apoptosis by enhancing Bid cleavage and caspase-9 activation. Together, we demonstrated that HSP90 plays an anti-apoptotic role in death receptor signalling and that CtsD-mediated cleavage of HSP90 sensitizes cells for apoptosis. These findings identify HSP90 as a potential target for cancer therapy in combination with death ligands (e.g. TNF or TRAIL).

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Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FMP)
Campus Berlin-Buch
Robert-Roessle-Str. 10
13125 Berlin, Germany
+4930 94793 - 100 
+4930 94793 - 109 (Fax)

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