FMP Publications

Our publications are recorded in a searchable database since 2010, updates will be added regularly.

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Quantitative NMR analysis of Erk activity and inhibition by U0126 in a panel of patient-derived colorectal cancer cell lines
Rose, H. M., Stuiver, M., Thongwichian, R., Theillet, F. X., Feller(*), S. M.; Selenko, P.
Biochim Biophys Acta, 1834:1396-1401

Tags: In-Cell NMR (Selenko)

Abstract: We comparatively analyzed the basal activity of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) in lysates of 10 human colorectal cancer cell lines by semi-quantitative Western blotting and time-resolved NMR spectroscopy. Both methods revealed heterogeneous levels of endogenous Erk1/2 activities in a highly consistent manner. Upon treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) acting upstream of Erk1/2, Western-blotting and NMR congruently reported specific modulations of cellular phospho-Erk levels that translated into reduced kinase activities. Results obtained in this study highlight the complementary nature of antibody- and NMR-based phospho-detection techniques. They further exemplify the usefulness of time-resolved NMR measurements in providing fast and quantitative readouts of kinase activities and kinase inhibitor efficacies in native cellular environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases (2012).

The alphabet of intrinsic disorder: I. Act like a Pro: On the abundance and roles of proline residues in intrinsically disordered proteins
Theillet, F. X., Kalmar(*), L., Tompa(*), P., Han(*), K. H., Selenko, P., Dunker(*), A. K., Daughdrill(*), G. W.; Uversky(*), V. N.
Intrinsically disordered proteins, 1:e24360

Tags: In-Cell NMR (Selenko)

Abstract: A significant fraction of every proteome is occupied by biologically active proteins that do not form unique three-dimensional structures. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) have essential biological functions and are characterized by extensive structural plasticity. Such structural and functional behavior is encoded in the amino acid sequences of IDPs/IDPRs, which are enriched in disorder-promoting residues and depleted in order-promoting residues. In fact, amino acid residues can be arranged according to their disorder-promoting tendency to form an alphabet of intrinsic disorder that defines the structural complexity and diversity of IDPs/IDPRs. This review is the first in a series of publications dedicated to the roles that different amino acid residues play in defining the phenomenon of protein intrinsic disorder. We start with proline because data suggests that of the 20 common amino acid residues, this one is the most disorder-promoting.

Site-specific NMR mapping and time-resolved monitoring of serine and threonine phosphorylation in reconstituted kinase reactions and mammalian cell extracts
Theillet, F. X., Rose, H. M., Liokatis, S., Binolfi, A., Thongwichian, R., Stuiver, M.; Selenko, P.
Nat Protoc, 8:1416-1432

Tags: In-Cell NMR (Selenko)

Abstract: We outline NMR protocols for site-specific mapping and time-resolved monitoring of protein phosphorylation reactions using purified kinases and mammalian cell extracts. These approaches are particularly amenable to intrinsically disordered proteins and unfolded, regulatory protein domains. We present examples for the (1)(5)N isotope-labeled N-terminal transactivation domain of human p53, which is either sequentially reacted with recombinant enzymes or directly added to mammalian cell extracts and phosphorylated by endogenous kinases. Phosphorylation reactions with purified enzymes are set up in minutes, whereas NMR samples in cell extracts are prepared within 1 h. Time-resolved NMR measurements are performed over minutes to hours depending on the activities of the probed kinases. Phosphorylation is quantitatively monitored with consecutive 2D (1)H-(1)(5)N band-selective optimized-flip-angle short-transient (SOFAST)-heteronuclear multiple-quantum (HMQC) NMR experiments, which provide atomic-resolution insights into the phosphorylation levels of individual substrate residues and time-dependent changes thereof, thereby offering unique advantages over western blotting and mass spectrometry.

Combinatorial approach to drastically enhance the monoclonal antibody efficacy in targeted tumor therapy.
Gilabert-Oriol(*), R., Thakur(*), M., von Mallinckrodt(*), B., Hug(*), T., Wiesner, B., Eichhorst, J., Melzig(*), M. F., Fuchs(*), H.; Weng(*), A.
Mol Cancer Ther, 12

Tags: Cellular Imaging (Wiesner)

Modified Trastuzumab and Cetuximab Mediate Efficient Toxin Delivery While Retaining Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Target Cells
Gilabert-Oriol(*), R., Thakur(*), M., von Mallinckrodt(*), B., Hug(*), T., Wiesner, B., Eichhorst, J., Melzig(*), M. F., Fuchs(*), H.; Weng(*), A.
Mol Pharmaceut, 10:4347-4357

Tags: Cellular Imaging (Wiesner)

Abstract: Monoclonal antibody-based therapy is one of the most successful strategies for treatment of cancer. However, the insufficient cell killing activity of monoclonal antibodies limits their therapeutic potential. These limitations can be overcome by the application of immunotoxins, which consist of a monoclonal antibody that specifically delivers a toxin into the cancer cell. An ideal immunotoxin combines the functionality of the monoclonal antibody (antagonistic binding to targeted receptors and interaction with the innate immune system) with the cell-killing activity of the toxic moiety. In addition, it should be sensitive for certain triterpenoid saponins that are known to lead to a tremendous augmentation of the antitumoral efficacy of the immunotoxin. In this study, the monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab (Herceptin) and cetuximab (Erbitux) were conjugated via cleavable disulfide bonds to the plant derived toxin saporin. The ability of the modified tumor-specific therapeutic antibodies to deliver their toxic payload into the target cells was investigated by impedance-based real-time viability assays and confocal live cell imaging. We further provide evidence that the immunotoxins retained their ability to trigger antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. They specifically bound to their target cell receptor, and their cell-killing activity was drastically augmented in the presence of triterpenoid saponins. Further mechanistic studies indicated a specific saponin-mediated endo/lysosomal release of the toxin moiety. These results open a promising avenue to overcome the present limitations of therapeutic antibodies and to achieve a higher antitumoral efficacy in cancer therapy.

Macromolecular interactions of triterpenoids and targeted toxins: Role of saponins charge
Thakur(*), M., Weng(*), A., Pieper(*), A., Mergel(*), K., von Mallinckrodt(*), B., Gilabert-Oriol(*), R., Gorick(*), C., Wiesner, B., Eichhorst, J., Melzig(*), M. F.; Fuchs(*), H.
Int J Biol Macromol, 61:285-294

Tags: Cellular Imaging (Wiesner)

Abstract: Macromolecular interaction of protein toxins with certain plant triterpenoids holds potential for application in tumor therapy. The ability of only certain saponins to enhance the endosomal escape of toxins specifically in tumor cells was evaluated and set into correlation with the electrophoretic mobility. Saponins from Saponaria officinalis Linn, were selected as a lead to understand this evolutionarily conserved principle in detail. Agarose gel electrophoresis was utilized to procure pure saponin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility, which were tested for their ability to enhance the toxicity by live cell monitoring. Five fractions (SOG1-SOG5) were isolated with a relative electrophoretic mobility of (-0.05, 0.41, 0.59, 0.75 and 1.00) and evaluated using thin layer chromatography, HPLC, and mass spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity experiments revealed highest effectiveness with SOG3. Live cell imaging experiments with SOG3 revealed that this saponin with a specific REM of 0.59 could assist in the lyso/endosomal release of the toxic payload without affecting the integrity of plasma membrane and could lead to the induction of apoptosis. This charge dependent enhancement was also found to be highly specific to type I ribosome inactivating proteins compared to bacterial toxins. Charge interaction of plant toxins and saponins with tumor cells, plays a major role in toxin specific modulation of response. The finding opens up newer ways of finding protein saponin interaction conserved evolutionarily and to test their role in endosomal escape of therapeutic molecules. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Different intra- and intermolecular activation mechanisms at the human lutropin receptor: Lutropin induces only cis- and choriogonadotropin also trans-activation
Grzesik, P., Teichmann, A., Furkert, J., Rutz, C., Wiesner, B., Kleinau(*), G., Schülein, R., Gromoll(*), J.; Krause, G.
Exp Clin Endocr Diab, 121

Tags: Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Design (Krause, G.), Cellular Imaging (Wiesner), Protein Trafficking (Schülein)

Signal Peptide Cleavage from GP5 of PRRSV: A Minor Fraction of Molecules Retains the Decoy Epitope, a Presumed Molecular Cause for Viral Persistence
Thaa(*), B., Sinhadri(*), B. C., Tielesch(*), C., Krause, E.; Veit(*), M.
Plos One, 8

Tags: Mass Spectrometry (Krause, E.)

Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the major pathogen in the pig industry. Variability of the antigens and persistence are the biggest challenges for successful control and elimination of the disease. GP5, the major glycoprotein of PRRSV, is considered an important target of neutralizing antibodies, which however appear only late in infection. This was attributed to the presence of a "decoy epitope" located near a hypervariable region of GP5. This region also harbors the predicted signal peptide cleavage sites and (dependent on the virus strain) a variable number of potential N-glycosylation sites. Molecular processing of GP5 has not been addressed experimentally so far: whether and where the signal peptide is cleaved and (as a consequence) whether the "decoy epitope" is present in virus particles. We show that the signal peptide of GP5 from the American type 2 reference strain VR-2332 is cleaved, both during in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes and in transfected cells. This was found to be independent of neighboring glycosylation sites and occurred in a variety of porcine cells for GP5 sequences derived from various type 2 strains. The exact signal peptide cleavage site was elucidated by mass spectrometry of virus-derived and recombinant GP5. The results revealed that the signal peptide of GP5 is cleaved at two sites. As a result, a mixture of GP5 proteins exists in virus particles, some of which still contain the "decoy epitope" sequence. Heterogeneity was also observed for the use of glycosylation sites in the hypervariable region. Lastly, GP5 mutants were engineered where one of the signal peptide cleavage sites was blocked. Wildtype GP5 exhibited exactly the same SDS-PAGE mobility as the mutant that is cleavable at site 2 only. This indicates that the overwhelming majority of all GP5 molecules does not contain the "decoy epitope".

In tight junctions, claudins regulate the interactions between occludin, tricellulin and marvelD3, which, inversely, modulate claudin oligomerization
Cording, J., Berg, J., Käding, N., Bellmann, C., Tscheik, C., Westphal(*), J. K., Milatz(*), S., Günzel(*), D., Wolburg(*), H., Piontek, J., Huber(*), O.; Blasig, I. E.
J Cell Sci, 126:554-564

Tags: Molecular and Cell Physiology (Blasig, IE)

Abstract: Tight junctions seal the paracellular cleft of epithelia and endothelia, form vital barriers between tissue compartments and consist of tight-junction-associated marvel proteins (TAMPs) and claudins. The function of TAMPs and the interaction with claudins are not understood. We therefore investigated the binding between the TAMPs occludin, tricellulin, and marvelD3 and their interaction with claudins in living tight-junction-free human embryonic kidney-293 cells. In contrast to claudins and occludin, tricellulin and marvelD3 showed no enrichment at cell-cell contacts indicating lack of homophilic trans-interaction between two opposing cell membranes. However, occludin, marvelD3 and tricellulin exhibited homophilic cis-interactions, along one plasma membrane, as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. MarvelD3 also cis-interacted with occludin and tricellulin heterophilically. Classic claudins, such as claudin-1 to -5 may show cis-oligomerization with TAMPs, whereas the non-classic claudin-11 did not. Claudin-1 and -5 improved enrichment of occludin and tricellulin at cell-cell contacts. The low mobile claudin-1 reduced the membrane mobility of the highly mobile occludin and tricellulin, as studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Co-transfection of claudin-1 with TAMPs led to changes of the tight junction strand network of this claudin to a more physiological morphology, depicted by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The results demonstrate multilateral interactions between the tight junction proteins, in which claudins determine the function of TAMPs and vice versa, and provide deeper insights into the tight junction assembly.

Trends in drug delivery through tissue barriers containing tight junctions
Tscheik, C., Blasig, I. E.; Winkler, L.
Tissue Barriers, 1:e24565

Tags: Molecular and Cell Physiology (Blasig, IE)

Abstract: A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function.

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Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FMP)
Campus Berlin-Buch
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