FMP Publications

Our publications are recorded in a searchable database since 2010, updates will be added regularly.

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Structural mechanisms of activation and desensitization in neurotransmitter-gated ion channels
Plested, A. J.
Nat Struct Mol Biol, 23:494-502

Tags: Molecular Neuroscience and Biophysics (Plested)

Abstract: Ion channels gated by neurotransmitters are present across metazoans, in which they are essential for brain function, sensation and locomotion; closely related homologs are also found in bacteria. Structures of eukaryotic pentameric cysteine-loop (Cys-loop) receptors and tetrameric ionotropic glutamate receptors in multiple functional states have recently become available. Here, I describe how these studies relate to established ideas regarding receptor activation and how they have enabled decades' worth of functional work to be pieced together, thus allowing previously puzzling aspects of receptor activity to be understood.

Single-Channel Recording of Glycine Receptors in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) Cells
Plested, A. J.; Baranovic, J.
Cold Spring Harb Protoc, 2016:pdb prot091652

Tags: Molecular Neuroscience and Biophysics (Plested)

Abstract: This protocol describes how to record the single-channel activity of recombinant homomeric glycine receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Cell-attached recordings readily reveal the large conductance (90 pS) and distinctive clusters of activations at high glycine concentration. This method for obtaining equilibrium recordings can be adapted to any ion channel receptor. The necessary extensions to outside-out patch for nonequilibrium recordings are also described, as are basic analyses of channel properties and activity.

Ultrafast Magic-Angle Spinning: Benefits for the Acquisition of Ultrawide-Line NMR Spectra of Heavy Spin-1/2 Nuclei
Pöppler, A. C., Demers, J. P., Malon(*), M., Singh(*), A. P., Roesky(*), H. W., Nishiyama(*), Y.; Lange, A.
Chemphyschem, 17:812-816

Tags: Molecular Biophysics (Lange, A.)

Abstract: The benefits of the ultrafast magic-angle spinning (MAS) approach for the acquisition of ultrawide-line NMR spectra-spectral simplification, increased mass sensitivity allowing the fast study of small amounts of material, efficient excitation, and application to multiple heavy nuclei-are demonstrated for tin(II) oxide (SnO) and the tin complex [(LB)Sn(II) Cl](+) [Sn(II) Cl3 ](-) [LB=2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(2,6-diisopropylanil)] containing two distinct tin environments. The ultrafast MAS experiments provide optimal conditions for the extraction of the chemical-shift anisotropy tensor parameters, anisotropy, and asymmetry for heavy spin-1/2 nuclei.

Sulindac Sulfide Induces the Formation of Large Oligomeric Aggregates of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-beta Peptide Which Exhibit Reduced Neurotoxicity
Prade(*), E., Barucker(*), C., Sarkar(*), R., Althoff-Ospelt(*), G., Lopez del Amo, J. M., Hossain(*), S., Zhong(*), Y., Multhaup(*), G.; Reif(*), B.
Biochemistry, 55:1839-1849

Tags: Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy (Reif)

Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in brain tissue of affected individuals. In recent years, many potential lead structures have been suggested that can potentially be used for diagnosis and therapy. However, the mode of action of these compounds is so far not understood. Among these small molecules, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac sulfide received a lot of attention. In this manuscript, we characterize the interaction between the monomeric Abeta peptide and the NSAID sulindac sulfide. We find that sulindac sulfide efficiently depletes the pool of toxic oligomers by enhancing the rate of fibril formation. In vitro, sulindac sulfide forms colloidal particles which catalyze the formation of fibrils. Aggregation is immediate, presumably by perturbing the supersaturated Abeta solution. We find that sulindac sulfide induced Abeta aggregates are structurally homogeneous. The C-terminal part of the peptide adopts a beta-sheet structure, whereas the N-terminus is disordered. The salt bridge between D23 and K28 is present, similar as in wild type fibril structures. (13)C-(19)F transferred echo double resonance experiments suggest that sulindac sulfide colocalizes with the Abeta peptide in the aggregate.

Effects of Halide Ions on the Carbamidocyclophane Biosynthesis in Nostoc sp. CAVN2
Preisitsch(*), M., Heiden(*), S. E., Beerbaum, M., Niedermeyer(*), T. H., Schneefeld(*), M., Herrmann(*), J., Kumpfmüller(*), J., Thürmer(*), A., Neidhardt(*), I., Wiesner(*), C., Daniel(*), R., Müller(*), R., Bange(*), F. C., Schmieder, P., Schweder(*), T.; Mundt(*), S.
Mar Drugs, 14:21

Tags: Solution NMR (Schmieder)

Abstract: In this study, the influence of halide ions on [7.7]paracyclophane biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CAVN2 was investigated. In contrast to KI and KF, supplementation of the culture medium with KCl or KBr resulted not only in an increase of growth but also in an up-regulation of carbamidocyclophane production. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of chlorinated, brominated, but also non-halogenated derivatives. In addition to 22 known cylindrocyclophanes and carbamidocyclophanes, 27 putative congeners have been detected. Nine compounds, carbamidocyclophanes M-U, were isolated, and their structural elucidation by 1D and 2D NMR experiments in combination with HRMS and ECD analysis revealed that they are brominated analogues of chlorinated carbamidocyclophanes. Quantification of the carbamidocyclophanes showed that chloride is the preferably utilized halide, but incorporation is reduced in the presence of bromide. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of 30 [7.7]paracyclophanes and related derivatives against selected pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria exhibited remarkable effects especially against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For deeper insights into the mechanisms of biosynthesis, the carbamidocyclophane biosynthetic gene cluster in Nostoc sp. CAVN2 was studied. The gene putatively coding for the carbamoyltransferase has been identified. Based on bioinformatic analyses, a possible biosynthetic assembly is discussed.

Antifungal membranolytic activity of the tyrocidines against filamentous plant fungi
Rautenbach(*), M., Troskie(*), A. M., Vosloo(*), J. A.; Dathe, M. E.
Biochimie, 130:122-131

Tags: Peptide-Lipid-Interaction/ Peptide Transport (Dathe)

Abstract: The tyrocidines and analogues are cyclic decapeptides produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis with a conserved sequence of cyclo(D-Phe1-Pro2-X3-x4-Asn5-Gln6-X7-Val8-X9-Leu10) with Trp3,4/Phe3,4 in the aromatic dipeptide unit, Lys9/Orn9 as their cationic residue and Tyr (tyrocidines), Trp (tryptocidines) or Phe (phenicidines) in position 7. Previous studies indicated they have a broad antifungal spectrum with the peptides containing a Tyr residue in position 7 being more active than those with a Phe or Trp residue in this position. Detailed analysis of antifungal inhibition parameters revealed that Phe3-D-Phe4 in the aromatic dipeptide unit lead to more consistent activity against the three filamentous fungi in this study. These peptides exhibited high membrane activity and fast leakage kinetics against model membranes emulating fungal membranes, with selectivity towards ergosterol containing membranes. More fluid membranes and doping of liposomes with the sphingolipid, glucosylceramide, led to a decreased permeabilising activity. Peptide-induced uptake of membrane impermeable dyes was observed in hyphae of both Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea, with uptake more pronounced at the hyphal growth tips that are known to contain ergosterol-sphigolipid rich lipid rafts. Tyrocidine interaction with these rafts may lead to the previously observed fungal hyperbranching. However, the leakage of model membranes and Bot. cinerea did not correlate directly with the antifungal inhibition parameters, indicating another target or mode of action. Proteinase K treatment of target fungi had a minimal influence or even improved the tyrocidine activity, ruling out a mannoprotein target in the fungal cell wall. beta-glucanase treatment of Bot. cinerea did not significantly affect the tyrocidine activity, but there was a significant loss in activity towards the beta-glucanase treated F. solani. This study showed the tyrocidine antifungal membrane activity is selective towards ergosterol and possibly lipid rafts, but also point to additional targets such as the cell wall beta-glucans that could modulate their activity.

5-Aryl-2-(naphtha-1-yl)sulfonamido-thiazol-4(5H)-ones as clathrin inhibitors
Robertson(*), M. J., Horatscheck, A., Sauer, S., von Kleist(*), L., Baker, J. R., Stahlschmidt, W., Nazare, M., Whiting(*), A., Chau(*), N., Robinson(*), P. J., Haucke, V.; McCluskey(*), A.
Org Biomol Chem, 14:11266-11278

Tags: Molecular Pharmacology and Cell Biology (Haucke), Medicinal Chemistry (Nazare)

Abstract: The development of a (Z)-5-((6,8-dichloro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (2), rhodanine-based lead that led to the Pitstop(R) 2 family of clathrin inhibitors is described herein. Head group substitution and bioisosteric replacement of the rhodanine core with a 2-aminothiazol-4(5H)-one scaffold eliminated off target dynamin activity. A series of N-substituents gave first phenylglycine (20, IC50 approximately 20 muM) then phenyl (25, IC50 approximately 7.1 muM) and 1-napthyl sulfonamide (26, Pitstop(R) 2 compound, IC50 approximately 1.9 muM) analogues with good activity, validating this approach. A final library exploring the head group resulted in three analogues displaying either slight improvements or comparable activity (33, 38, and 29 with IC50 approximately 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 muM respectively) and nine others with IC50 < 10 muM. These results were rationalized using in silico docking studies. Docking studies predicted enhanced Pitstop(R) 2 family binding, not a loss of binding, within the Pistop(R) groove of the reported clathrin mutant invalidating recent assumptions of poor selectivity for this family of clathrin inhibitors.

1H, 13C and 15N backbone resonance assignment of the intrinsically disordered region of the nuclear envelope protein emerin
Samson(*), C., Herrada(*), I., Celli(*), F., Theillet, F. X.; Zinn-Justin(*), S.
Biomol NMR Assign, 10:179-182

Tags: In-Cell NMR (Selenko)

Abstract: Human emerin is an inner nuclear membrane protein involved in the response of the nucleus to mechanical stress. It contributes to the physical connection between the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeleton. It is also involved in chromatin organization. Its N-terminal region is nucleoplasmic and comprises a globular LEM domain from residue 1 to residue 43. The three-dimensional structure of this LEM domain in complex with the chromatin BAF protein was solved from NMR data. Apart from the LEM domain, the nucleoplasmic region of emerin, from residue 44 to residue 221, is predicted to be intrinsically disordered. Mutations in this region impair binding to several emerin partners as lamin A, actin or HDAC3. However the molecular details of these recognition defects are unknown. Here we report (1)H, (15)N, (13)CO, (13)Calpha and (13)Cbeta NMR chemical shift assignments of the emerin fragment from residue 67 to residue 170, which is sufficient for nuclear localization and involved in lamin A binding. Chemical shift analysis confirms that this fragment is intrinsically disordered in 0 and 8 M urea.

A Non-canonical Voltage-Sensing Mechanism Controls Gating in K2P K(+) Channels
Schewe(*), M., Nematian-Ardestani(*), E., Sun, H., Musinszki(*), M., Cordeiro(*), S., Bucci(*), G., de Groot(*), B. L., Tucker(*), S. J., Rapedius(*), M.; Baukrowitz(*), T.
Cell, 164:937-949

Tags: Computational Chemistry and Protein Design (Kühne)

Abstract: Two-pore domain (K2P) K(+) channels are major regulators of excitability that endow cells with an outwardly rectifying background "leak" conductance. In some K2P channels, strong voltage-dependent activation has been observed, but the mechanism remains unresolved because they lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Here, we show voltage-dependent gating is common to most K2P channels and that this voltage sensitivity originates from the movement of three to four ions into the high electric field of an inactive selectivity filter. Overall, this ion-flux gating mechanism generates a one-way "check valve" within the filter because outward movement of K(+) induces filter opening, whereas inward movement promotes inactivation. Furthermore, many physiological stimuli switch off this flux gating mode to convert K2P channels into a leak conductance. These findings provide insight into the functional plasticity of a K(+)-selective filter and also refine our understanding of K2P channels and the mechanisms by which ion channels can sense voltage.

Lipid dynamics in boar sperm studied by advanced fluorescence imaging techniques
Schröter(*), F., Jakop(*), U., Teichmann, A., Haralampiev(*), I., Tannert(*), A., Wiesner, B., Müller(*), P.; Müller(*), K.
European biophysics journal : EBJ, 45:149-163

Tags: Cellular Imaging (Wiesner)

Abstract: The (re)organization of membrane components is of special importance to prepare mammalian sperm to fertilization. Establishing suitable methods to examine physico-chemical membrane parameters is of high interest. We characterized the behavior of fluorescent (NBD) analogs of sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylserine (PS), and cholesterol (Ch) in the acrosomal and postacrosomal macrodomain of boar sperm. Due to their specific transverse membrane distribution, a leaflet-specific investigation of membrane properties is possible. The behavior of lipid analogs in boar sperm was investigated by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The results were compared with regard to the different temporal and spatial resolution of the methods. For the first time, fluorescence lifetimes of lipid analogs were determined in sperm cell membrane and found to be in a range characteristic for the liquid-disordered phase in artificial lipid membranes. FLIM analyses further indicate a more fluid microenvironment of NBD-Ch and NBD-PS in the postacrosomal compared to the acrosomal region. The concept of a more fluid cytoplasmic leaflet is supported by lower fluorescence lifetime and higher average D values (FCS) for NBD-PS in both head compartments. Whereas FLIM analyses did not indicate coexisting distinct liquid-ordered and -disordered domains in any of the head regions, comparisons between FRAP and FCS measurements suggest the incorporation of NBD-SM as well as NBD-PS in postacrosomal subpopulations with different diffusion velocity. The analog-specific results indicate that the lipid analogs used are suitable to report on the various physicochemical properties of different microenvironments.

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Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FMP)
Campus Berlin-Buch
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13125 Berlin, Germany
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